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Subject Menu EYFS English Maths Art & Design Computing PE RE
French D & T Geography History PSHE Science Music  

At Fairlop Primary School, we follow the Early Years principles set down in the Development Matters curriculum.
We believe that:

  • Every child is a unique child who is constantly learning
  • Children learn to be independent learners through developing positive relationships with the adults around them
  • Children learn and develop in enabling environments which offer rich learning opportunities through play and playful teaching
  • Children develop and learn in different ways

We believe that the way in which the child engages with others and their environment underpin learning and development across all areas and support the child to remain an effective and motivated learner.

The Prime Areas of the curriculum enable children to develop relationships with others, to talk and share their thoughts and opinions and to access the environment around them. These areas are:

  • Communication and Language
  • Personal, Social and Emotional Development
  • Physical Development

The Specific Areas of the curriculum enable children to develop their fine motor skills, to learn and apply their letters and sounds, to say and recognise numbers and their values, to find out about the world around them and to learn to make, sing, dance and explore different media and materials. These areas are:

  • Literacy
  • Mathematics
  • Understanding the world
  • Expressive Arts and Design

We believe that children learn best through play-based activities that are open ended and that allow the adults around them to model, question and talk to the children about their learning. Communication and Language is at the heart of our provision and the children are encouraged to talk and to share their thoughts and opinions with their peers and the adults around them.

Children can choose to play inside and outside of the classroom and our Early Years Garden provides children with the opportunity to design and make large models, to experiment with mud, water and sand and to run, jump and slide! We plan activities and experiences based on all areas of the curriculum and related to the children’s interests. We provide the children with a wide range of resources, which encourage them to work cooperatively together to develop their social and emotional skills.

We follow the ‘Letter and Sounds’ programme when teaching phonics, with nursery children focusing on listening to the sounds around them and how to orally segment and blend words (Phase 1 and 2). Reception children are taught to apply the sounds that they have learnt to read and write sentences and stories independently (Phase 2, 3, 4 and 5). Opportunities for mark making, writing and reading can be found throughout the setting and children are encouraged to write their own stories and to act them out in our role-play areas.

Our daily maths sessions are differentiated to meet the needs of all our children and we use ‘Numicon’ to support our teaching of number and place value. We use the environment to enhance our teaching of maths such as shape walks in the environmental area, finding numbers on the school field, measuring the lengths of sticks, sorting leaves into different sizes and creating patterns.

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At Fairlop Primary School, we are committed to provide a broad and balanced curriculum that enables to children to have a wide range of knowledge and transferrable skills. Where possible, children are encouraged to make links across subjects and high standards are expected in all areas of the curriculum.
Our curriculum is based on the National Curriculum and RE is taught following the SACRE Redbridge and Havering syllabus 2015-2020. We also teach Personal, Social and Health Education (PSHE) to support the personal and emotional development of the whole child, including Philosophy and Sex and Relationship Education.
'Curriculum overviews can be found under Curriculum and Our Classes'​ Timings and subject content may be subject to change throughout the year.


At Fairlop our aim is for children to be able communicate confidently and meaningfully both orally and through written language and to develop their love of literature through reading for enjoyment as well as for understanding.
We follow the national curriculum for English that aims to ensure that all pupils:

  • read easily, fluently and with good understanding
  • develop the habit of reading widely and often, for both pleasure and information
  • acquire a wide vocabulary, an understanding of grammar and knowledge of linguistic conventions for reading, writing and spoken language
  • appreciate our rich and varied literary heritage
  • write clearly, accurately and coherently, adapting their language and style in and for a range of contexts, purposes and audiences
  • use discussion in order to learn; they should be able to elaborate and explain clearly their understanding and ideas
  • are competent in the arts of speaking and listening, making formal presentations, demonstrating to others and participating in debate

Speaking and Listening
Speaking and listening skills are developed through group discussions, drama, role-plays and philosophical debates (Philosophy for Children). At Fairlop, we believe that having the skills to ask and answer open-ended questions will develop our children’s spoken language, reading, writing and vocabulary, which are all vital life skills.  In all Key Stages speaking and listening is an integral part of daily English teaching. Teachers identify and plan for opportunities to build oracy into all areas of the curriculum. Children are taught to justify ideas with reasons, ask questions, speculate, hypothesise and explore ideas in order to develop and build their understanding as well as negotiate, evaluate and build on the ideas of others.

At Fairlop we select engaging quality texts which will provide opportunities for our children to experience different genres and time periods, will develop their vocabulary,  expose them to different writing styles and structures so that they can experiment themselves with these in their own writing.  A text is taught through class discussions, drama, reading and analysis and the writing outcomes are purposeful and keep the audience in mind. Children are taught to analyse texts, discussing why authors have used certain language and think about themselves as active writers. They are taught to correct, edit and improve their work, leading to a final draft.

Please click here to see a sample of our Handwriting Style. The full policy can be found in the policies section of the website.

Phonics and Spelling
From Reception to year 2 - and where necessary in KS2 - children are taught grapheme-phoneme correspondences through daily discrete phonics sessions and the skill of segmenting to spell. The school uses the ‘Letters and Sounds’ scheme to teach early reading skills. From years 3 – 6, children are taught spelling strategies and rules through discrete spelling sessions, following the objectives and teaching programmes outlined in the National Curriculum. The children receive a list of words each week to help them learn a particular spelling rule and then they will be tested on them the following week.

Children are encouraged to develop an interest and enjoyment in a wide range of books through shared, individual and group reading sessions. Key skills for reading and comprehension are taught through English lessons as well through group reading sessions with the teacher (reciprocal reading).
In the early stages, phonetic awareness is introduced through specific phonics teaching using the ‘Letters and Sounds’ scheme. Children begin to recognise high frequency words and make sense of text.  Reading skills are further developed through focussed group reading sessions. Children from Reception onwards will have an individual reading book and they will be heard to read regularly in school.  We strongly encourage a home-school partnership where parents read with and to their children. It is essential that families encourage the child to read at home and record this in their reading record. In Years 5 and 6, children are expected to complete their reading records independently. Discussion about books is vital and we encourage parents to ask their children questions about their reading books and the characters in them. The reading records contain hints and ways that families can support the child with their reading as well as the spelling words and grammar support for each year group.
We hold termly reading mornings where parents or family members are invited into read with their children before school.

The well-stocked library caters for all age ranges. It contains a wide range of fiction and non-fiction books and gives opportunity for children to learn to use the library and reference materials effectively. All children have a weekly library session, led by the school librarian, during which they will choose a book to read at home.

A Book Fair is held each spring where children can buy good quality books at a reasonable price. World Book Day is also celebrated annually with a variety of book related events.

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Mathematics is a core subject in the National Curriculum, and we at Fairlop Primary School, use the objectives from the National Curriculum Programmes of Study as the basis for implementing the statutory requirements for mathematics.

‘Mathematics is a creative and highly inter-connected discipline that has been developed over centuries, providing the solution to some of history’s most intriguing problems. It is essential to everyday life, critical to science, technology and engineering, and necessary in most forms of employment. A high-quality mathematics education therefore provides a foundation for understanding the world, the ability to reason mathematically, and a sense of enjoyment and curiosity about the subject.’

Mathematics Programme of Study, Department of Education 2014

The three aims of the National Curriculum are at the heart of how we teach mathematics and are incorporated into every lesson. 
These aims are:

  • Fluency

Children should become fluent in the fundamentals of mathematics, develop conceptual understanding and the ability to recall and apply knowledge rapidly and accurately

  • Reasoning

Reason mathematically by following a line of enquiry, conjecturing relationships and generalisations, and developing an argument or justification using mathematical language

  • Problem Solving

Solve problems by applying mathematics to a variety of routine and non-routine problems with increasing sophistication, including breaking down problems into a series of simpler steps and persevering in seeking solutions.

Teachers from year 1 to year 6 use schemes of learning published by the White Rose Maths Hub to plan effective maths lessons.
We believe that all students, when introduced to a key new mathematical concept, should have the opportunity to build competency by using the concrete – pictorial – abstract approach.

  • Concrete - students should have the opportunity to use concrete objects and manipulatives to help them understand what they are doing.
  • Pictorial – students should build on this concrete approach by using pictorial representations. These representations can then be used to reason and solve problems.
  • Abstract – with the foundations firmly laid, students should be able to move to an abstract approach using numbers and key concepts with confidence.

We are committed to ensuring that every child has the mathematical knowledge and understanding needed to enable them to make excellent progress and leave us with secure mathematical life skills.

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At Fairlop we are passionate about all scientific matters and believe that this is evident in our day-to-day delivery of scientific content. We believe that science develops a set of specific skills that allows students to make informed decisions that help them both fulfil their own potential and help those around them.
We understand that our pupils are naturally curious and we encourage this inquisitive nature by helping them to frame questions within topics so they can test and evaluate ideas. Pupils are given the opportunities through topics and investigation to progressively deepen their knowledge of scientific concepts and build up the skills to access that knowledge.
We believe science should excite pupils’ interests, build on their prior knowledge and build their confidence, enabling them to take risks, work out problems and raise further questions. It should encourage positive attitudes and shape articulate learners who are able to explain what has been learnt and how.
The content of science teaching and learning is set out in the 2014 National Curriculum for primary schools in England. Within this, certain topics and areas are repeated across year groups, meaning that children may revisit a particular topic in each year of primary school but with increasing difficulty and with a different focus each time.
For example, the area of animals, including humans is examined in every single year group, with a very clear progression of knowledge and understanding over the six years:
In Year 1 this involves: looking at the human body, recognising animal groups and sorting these animals.
By Year 6, this will have developed into knowing the internal structure of the human body in relation to circulation, classifying living things based on more complex characteristics and exploring scientific research into this classification.

The more detailed content for each year group is as follows:

Year 1

Plants (basic structure)Animals including humans (basic knowledge of parts of human body and comparing animals)

Everyday materials (describing properties)

Seasonal changes.

Year 2

Plants (what plants need to grow)

Animals including humans (needs for survival, food and hygiene)

Use of everyday materials (explore and compare materials for uses)

Living things and their habitats (explore variety of habitats, simple food chains).

Year 3

Plants (life cycles)

Animals including humans (nutrition, skeleton and muscles)

Rocks (fossils and soils)

Light (reflection and shadows)

Forces and magnets (magnetic materials, attracting and repelling).

Year 4

Animals including humans (digestive system, teeth and food chains)

Living things and habitats (classification keys)

States of matter (changes of state, evaporation and condensation)

Sound (vibration, pitch and volume)

Electricity (simple circuits, insulators and conductors).

Year 5

Animals including humans (human development from birth to old age)

Living things and their habitats (life cycles and reproduction in humans and plants)

Properties and changes of materials (dissolving, separating materials, reversible and irreversible changes)

Forces (gravity, air resistance, water resistance, friction)

Earth and Space (Earth, Sun and Moon, the solar system).

Year 6

Animals including humans (circulatory system, diet and exercise, healthy living)

Living things and their habitat (classification, characteristics of plant and animal groups)

Light (how it travels, how we see, shadows)

Electricity (voltage and power in circuits, circuit components, symbols and diagrams)

Evolution and inheritance (how living things have changed over time, fossils, dinosaurs, adaptation to environment).

Alongside these areas runs the Working Scientifically element. This focuses on the skills the children need to become accurate, careful and confident practical scientists. Children are expected to master certain skills in each year group and there is a very clear progression of these set out for each school to refer to. For example:
In KS1, a child may have to ask questions, carry out a simple test, record simple data and then try to answer questions.
In KS2, they should be able to plan and carry out a fair test by using equipment accurately and taking exact readings or measurements. They are also expected to be able to draw conclusions from their results and record them using a range of graphs and charts.

Children also learn to work collaboratively and co-operatively as well as independently in their pursuit of further knowledge and understanding. Through developing understanding through practical experiences, children are then able to make scientific conclusions alongside the vocabulary needed to justify their observations and understanding.

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Fairlop Primary School demonstrates very high standards in art and design.  Art forms a very important part of our curriculum. We believe art education stimulates creativity and imagination whilst giving the child unique opportunities to develop intellectually, emotionally, physically and socially. Therefore, we believe that it should be taught as an individual subject as well as incorporated into other curriculum lessons. We strive to take every opportunity to further children’s understanding of how art and design shaped our history, and contributes to the culture and creativity of our nation as well as learning about other cultures.                                       

In Key Stage 1 the children will learn to use a range of different materials creatively to design and make products. They will draw, paint, print and sculpture materials such as clay to develop techniques in using colour, pattern, texture, line, shape, form and space. Children will use technology to produce images. They will also learn about the work of a range of great artists, designers and craft makers. All children will use a sketchbook to record ideas and observations.

In Key Stage 2 the children will learn to improve their mastery of art and design techniques by learning specific drawing, painting, printing and sculpture techniques. They will experience using a wider range of materials. Children will use technology to produce images, patterns and decorative pieces of work. They will record their observations and ideas and use them to review and evaluate improvements.  They will also learn about great artists, architects and designers in history.

Progression in art will be assessed through the pupils’ sketchbooks, which pass with the child to the next year group, displays and photographic evidence. Our displays at Fairlop are always of a very high standard reflecting our children’s work. 

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Computing at Fairlop Primary School aims to provide pupils with opportunities to develop skills and explore technology that will benefit them throughout their lives. Through the use of ‘Switched On Computing’, lessons are confidently delivered to pupils teaching them how computers and their systems work. Children have access to a variety of technologies in which they are able to build their expertise and create a range of content.

The use of programming and computer science teaches pupils skills that enhance their learning. Children develop their problem solving skills and adapt their thinking in order to find solutions. They are able to create and build in order to reach their desired outcome when working on a project.

Safe and responsible use of technology is an integral part of the teaching of computing and opportunities to introduce and reinforce cyber-safety practices are paramount throughout the school.

The school is well resourced in order to ensure that children get the most out of this subject. The school is equipped with I Pads, laptops, a dedicated computing suite, digital cameras and green-screen technology. Technology is also used creatively to enhance learning across the curriculum, for example through engagement with a Video Conferencing network.

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In Fairlop Primary School, design and technology is a practical subject that stimulates both intellectual and creative abilities. The aim of the school is to develop children’s understanding of how a design works, product analysis, and to develop their own confidence and ability to work through the same process.

The curriculum also includes ‘cooking and nutrition’, which prepares children with essential life skills that they will need in later life through the acquisition of cooking skills and an understanding of nutrition. As Fairlop Primary is a ‘Healthy School’, we ensure that children begin to understand and apply the principles of nutrition and healthy eating through PSHE and science lessons alongside the D&T curriculum.

During Design and Technology lessons, children have the opportunity to take part in a variety of creative and practical activities.

In EYFS and Key Stage 1, children generate ideas through drawings and templates to design appealing, functional products for themselves and other users. They are able to use range of materials and components to build their products. Finally, they evaluate their products and explore the strength and mechanisms of their product against the success criteria.

In Key Stage 2, children are challenged on their existing knowledge. At Fairlop, children are expected to explore through research and use mechanisms (for example, levers, sliders, wheels and axels) in their products. They are expected to develop design criteria to create a product, which is innovative, functional, fit for purpose and aimed at a particular group or individual. When making their products, they are able to use a range of equipment and ensure their product is finished to a high standard. They are also expected to explore and evaluate a range of existing products as well as evaluating their own.

Through design and technology activities, children learn to take risks, explore their creativity, use their imagination and become resourceful. This also allows children to develop an appreciation of quality, a sense of fine design, craft and technological applications and gain an awareness of needs of society, business and industry.

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Geography is, by nature, an investigative subject, which develops an understanding of concepts, knowledge and skills. The geography curriculum helps pupils understand key aspects of the world including people, places, environments and the interactions between them. We aim to develop and strengthen pupil’s awareness of the world around them.

Children will cover a broad range of enquiry including the development of geographical skills such as route finding, fieldwork, observations and map reading over the primary years.

In Key Stage 1, children will be developing their knowledge about the world, the United Kingdom and their locality relating to human and physical geography. They use geographical vocabulary to refer to key physical features (e.g. beach, cliff) and human features (e.g. city, town). They begin to use geographical skills including first hand observation, compass directions, map reading and looking at aerial photography to enhance their locational awareness. Children identify the different seasons, weather in the UK and look at hot and cold areas in the world.

In Key Stage 2, pupils extend their knowledge and understanding beyond the local area to include the United Kingdom and Europe, North and South America. Children learn to describe and understand physical geography such as rivers, mountains, volcanoes, earthquakes and the water cycle as well as human geography such as types of settlement, land use, economic activity and trade links. They also use maps to identify the position and significance of latitude, longitude, equator, northern & southern hemispheres, tropics of Cancer & Capricorn, Artic & Antarctic Circle, the prime/Greenwich meridian and time zones. They further develop their geographical skills by using OS maps, atlases, globes, compasses and digital/computer mapping to locate countries. Ranges of methods are used to observe, measure, record and present human and physical features.

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At Fairlop, we aim to deliver an engaging history curriculum, which promotes historical enquiry skills and follows the requirements and expectations of the National Curriculum.  Children are taught to understand some of the ways in which we find out about the past and to consider a range of sources.  Children learn through stories, eyewitness accounts, artefacts, role-play, technology and educational visits. Throughout their studies, children are encouraged to ask questions and to research the answers using a range of sources to develop their own curiosity about the past.  Children place the significant people and events which they study within a chronological framework and identify similarities and differences between ways of life in different periods. Throughout their studies, children develop a wide vocabulary of historical terms.

History teaching throughout Key Stage 1 includes an awareness of the changes in the children's lives and those of their family or adults around them and aspects of the ways of life of people in the past.  Year 1 focus on the toys, which different generations played with within their families.  They also study the history of the local area.   Year 2 study the Great Fire of London as a significant historical event in our locality.  They also compare the lives of Florence Nightingale, Mary Seacole & Edith Cavell as a study of significant people from the history of Britain and worldwide.

During Key Stage 2, children continue to develop their chronological knowledge and understanding of British, local and world history noting connection, contrasts and trends over time. The children study Ancient Egypt and Ancient Greece in Year 3. The Roman Empire and its impact on Britain and Anglo Saxon settlements are explored in Year 4.  In Year 5, the children study the Viking and Anglo Saxon struggle for the Kingdom of England to the time of Edward the Confessor and the local study in Year 5 is a focus on the Tudors. Year 6 study Britain during World War II, the changes in Britain from the Stone Age to the Iron Age and they complete a non-European study on the Mayan civilisation.

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At Fairlop Primary School, we help to encourage pupils to move away from the insularity that only speaking English can bring. Learning a language exposes pupils to other cultures and helps to develop an understanding and tolerance of others, their lives and traditions. Learning a foreign language provides practical opportunities for our pupils to communicate with people from around the globe, as well as equipping them with the skills to study and work in other countries. We have chosen French as our modern foreign language throughout the school because we have specialist teachers of French on our staff.

We teach an engaging French curriculum. There is a strong emphasis on fun and we use techniques that engage children of all ages and that help them retain the language that they have learned. We use games and songs to ensure that learning is enjoyable and memorable, as well as reading by engaging with simple French texts.

In lower KS2, children learn basic words and sentences in a number of topics such as introducing themselves and colours and numbers. They begin to understand and answer simple questions using taught vocabulary. In upper KS2, we build on this knowledge through simple conversation based around answering and asking questions in the context of given topics. The focus is largely on speaking and listening, although some grammar is introduced, such as the correct use of masculine and feminine nouns, and pupils begin to write simple pieces of text, preparing them for their transition to language learning at secondary school.

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Music means different things to different people and it is this universal language that we aim to teach and deliver to all our pupils at Fairlop Primary School. Our aim is simple: we want to engage and inspire our children to develop their sense of creativity and talent as young musicians. Music plays an important part of our school life, and all classes have regular weekly lessons. Music is through the Active Music program. Music skills are taught progressively and children learn the musical elements of pulse, rhythm and in-tune singing using solfa. They progress to instrumental activities, arrangements, compositional work and notation as the children gain in experience and confidence. Children listen to and appreciate a wide range of music. Each month the children help chose a musician, composer or band that the whole school will learn about and listen to. Classes are encouraged to share their music making in assemblies and in school concerts.  

In Year 3, all children learn to play the recorder and then in Year 4 children progress to learning a brass instrument for least one term as part of the ‘Wider Opportunities’ scheme.

We take great pride in the music opportunities that we are able to our students. From Year 2, all students have the option to learn a musical instrument and develop their passion for other instruments. We currently have children learning string, woodwind, guitar and piano. Children who learn how to play an instrument in school have the opportunity to perform in an annual recital. Singing clubs are run for interested children in Key Stages 1 & 2. The children have the opportunity to participate in the bi-annual Redbridge Choral Festival at the Royal Albert Hall, annual Recorder Festival and the Redbridge Infant Singing Festival.

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We provide a broad and balanced programme of physical education that is progressive, stimulating and challenging and includes dance, games, gymnastics and athletics throughout the school. We also introduce swimming and outdoor and adventurous activities in Key Stage 2. These activities are beneficial in developing creative, physical and social skills together with healthy attitude to exercise and fitness. They are delivered through a programme which is differentiated for children's needs and which coincides with their interests.

Children in Year 4 attend weekly swimming lessons for one term. The children are taught by a team of qualified instructors at Fullwell Cross Pool. Redbridge has a Code of Practice on the supervision of swimming, which is available for parents to see at school. Risk assessments are undertaken for all activities off site.

The school actively participates in competitions run by the primary section of the Redbridge Schools Sports Association as well as other sports bodies. Fairlop enters all local sporting competitions on offer often with A, B, & C teams available for selection.

The school is proud to be one of 104 schools nationwide to have achieved the ‘Sports Mark Platinum’. This demonstrates that we have maintained consistently high standards with our school sport provision, having achieved five successive gold awards.

There is a wide-ranging programme of clubs and teams providing extra-curricular activities for those children who demonstrate an interest and ability. These include netball, tag rugby, cricket, badminton, gymnastics, dance and tennis. Children participate in at least 2 hours of PE per week. In addition to this, all children take part in the daily mile & stacking cups challenges. There is a programme of intra-school competitions throughout the year. Children are required to change fully into PE clothing for all activities and jewellery must not be worn.

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Religious Education, though broadly Christian based, is approached through the exploration of all the main religions and is taught using the Religious Education Agreed Syllabus for Redbridge.At Fairlop, we bring children of many faiths and those who practise no faith, together, in an atmosphere of respect and tolerance. As well as extending their understanding of different religions we aim to help children develop a respect for the beliefs of others and to enhance their ability to respond to matters of ideology and value. Children will visit a variety of local places of worship as part of R.E.

Assemblies and Collective Worship Assemblies are a valuable time for the children to come together each day as either a whole school, phase group, year group, or class to share work, achievements, special festivals and celebrations from the main faiths, or to listen to stories with a religious or moral element. Assemblies often begin from a Christian standpoint but are non-denominational. Each day there is a moment for sharing time for quiet reflection or listening to a prayer or poem. Class led assemblies, to which parents are invited, are held throughout the year (see newsletter and school calendar for dates). Friday ‘Celebration’ assembly is a chance for children to share achievements and celebrate success and effort within school and from outside school.

Right of Withdrawal - Parents have a right to withdraw children from religious education and collective worship. However, the specific educational aims of religious education are quite separate from the role of the home and faith community to foster the growth of faith and we believe that the children can learn from one another. In our collective worship, we strive not to undermine the tenants of any religious faith, but rather to encourage the children to see themselves as part of the whole school community and to give meaning to issues of belief and value.

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PSHE is taught throughout the curriculum at Fairlop. Teachers use Philosophy for Children (P4C) from Pre-School to Year 6 to address different issues and provoke children’s thinking. It supports thinking skills by teaching them to challenge and reason their own answers and other students. Teachers use the ‘You, Me, PSHE’ planning resource from Islington Council to support the teaching of PSHE education in key stages 1 and 2. The curriculum overviews enable teachers to track topics across the academic year alongside relevant learning expectations. Each topic in the resources incorporates activities to establish the starting point of learners and assess progress. The topics included are:

  • Careers
  • Drug, alcohol and tobacco education
  • Financial capability and economic wellbeing
  • Identity, society and equality
  • Keeping safe and managing risk
  • Mental health and emotional wellbeing
  • Physical health and wellbeing
  • Sex and relationship education

Delivering of the PSHE curriculum is supported by outside agencies including the school nursing team, police and fire brigade liaison officers.

School Council 
Elected representatives from all classes (Year 2-6) attend School Council meetings weekly, which debate issues of importance to the children. They are asked their opinions on a range of topics including school dinners, and members of senior staff give feedback after appropriate action.

Sex and Relationship Education
Sex and Relationship Education (SRE) is learning about the emotional, social and physical aspects of growing up, relationships, sex, human sexuality and sexual health. Biological aspects are taught in Science and emotional and moral aspects are taught as part of Personal, Social & Health Education (PSHE), Philosophy and Computing (online safety). At Fairlop, our pupils are taught about the body, puberty, reproduction and sex – not the promotion of sexual orientation or sexual health and activity, as this would be inappropriate. This knowledge is built upon appropriately and gradually, year by year. Children are provided with essential skills for building positive, enjoyable, non-exploitative relationships which help them to stay safe both on and offline.

Philosophy for Children (P4C) is taught throughout the school. It is an enquiry based approach to open up children's learning through the exploration of ideas. Dialogues are prompted by the topics being covered and other concepts that the staff feel are appropriate to their class. The aim of P4C is to help children become more willing and able to ask questions, construct arguments and engage in reasoned discussion. Children are given the opportunity to see that their ideas have value and that others might have different ideas that also have value. It also gives them the chance to speak and be heard without the fear of getting it wrong. Learning Philosophy has a positive outcome on children's confidence to speak, to have patience when listening to others, whilst also raising self-esteem, general wellbeing and happiness. There is an impact across the curriculum through the development of oracy skills, improving the fluency of expression and explanation.

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